Thursday, March 26, 2015

Resources for March 26, 2015

"The History and Science of Color Temperature." Filmmaker IQ (May 2013)





Newton, Michael. "Tears in rain? Why Blade Runner is timeless." The Guardian (March 14, 2015)

Pulver, Andrew. "Films that pass the Bechdel test plummet in 2014." The Guardian (March 24, 2015) ["The number of films featuring positive depictions of women has dropped significantly, according to new research."]

Glovin, David. "Fraternities Lobby Against Campus Rape Investigations." Bloomberg (March 24, 2015)





Chemaly, Soraya. "10 Words Every Girl Should Learn." Films for Action (March 24, 2015)








Dogtooth (Greece: Giorgos Lanthimos, 2009) Dialogic Cinephilia (Ongoing Archive)

Monday, March 23, 2015

Resources for March 23, 2015

Ballhaus, Michael and Darren J. N. Middleton. "The Last Temptation of Christ." The Projection Booth #107 (March 26, 2013)

Frank, Alison. "Heavenly Creatures." Electric Sheep Magazine (September 13, 2011)

Perez, Rodrigo. "The 20 Best Films of 2009." The Playlist (January 30, 2015)

Critchley, Simon, Brooke Gladstone and Eugene Thacker. "In the Dust of this Planet." Radio Lab (September 8, 2014)

Flynn, Nick, Rick Marinick and Anna Mundow. "Boston Noir." Radio Open Source (December 8, 2014)

Stewart-Ahn, Aaron. "How Adam Curtis' film Bitter Lake will change everything you believe about news." Boing Boing (March 19, 2015)

Adam Curtis (Filmmaker/Journalist) Dialogic Cinephilia (Ongoing Archive)

Sutton, Douglas Allen. "Only the Wind Will Know. (Spring 2015 ENG 102 Essay)" Dialogic Cinephilia (March 23, 2015)

James Bamford: Author/Journalist/History of NSA Dialogic Cinephilia (Ongoing Archive)

Security/Security Agencies/Surveillance Dialogic Cinephilia (Ongoing Archive)

Framing/Discourse/Propaganda/Narratives Dialogic Cinephilia (Ongoing Archive)

Security/Security Agencies/Surveillance (Ongoing Peace and Conflict Studies Archive)

Ackerman, Spencer and James Ball. "GCHQ intercepted webcam images of millions of Yahoo users worldwide." The Guardian (February 27, 2014)

Abdurrahman, Sarah. "My Detainment Story or: How I learned to Stop Feeling Safe in My Own Country and Hate Border Agents." On the Media (September 20, 2013)

Ash, Timothy Garton. "The Stasi On Our Minds." The New York Review of Books (May 31, 2007)

Assange, Julian and Michael Ratner. "Julian Assange on Being Placed on NSA "Manhunting" List & Secret Targeting of WikiLeaks Supporters." Democracy Now (February 18, 2014)

Attalah, Lina, Sharif Abdel Kouddous, and Chris Toensing. "Massacre in Cairo: Egypt on Brink After Worst Violence Since 2011 Revolution." Democracy Now (August 15, 2013)

Auken, Laurie Van. The still- classified 28 pages of the JICI dealing with terrorist financing, the 9/11 families’ stalled lawsuit to bankrupt the terrorists and the direct interventions by the White House to protect the Saudi regime against the justice-seeking families, and the many uninvestigated questions and facts covered up by the 9/11 commission. Boiling Frogs (August 19, 2011)

Baker, Stewart and Daniel Ellsberg. "Debate: Was Snowden Justified?" Democracy Now (February 14, 2014)

Bamford, James. "The Man Who Sold the War: Meet John Rendon, Bush's general in the propaganda war." Rolling Stone (November 17, 2005)

---. "The NSA Is Building the Country’s Biggest Spy Center (Watch What You Say)." Wired (March 15, 2012)

---. "The NSA's Warrantless Wiretapping Program." Boiling Frogs (July 21, 2009)

---. "They Know Much More Than You Think." The New York Review of Books (August 15, 2013)

Benjamin, Medea and Trevor Timm. "Drone Summit: Killing and Spying by Remote Control." Law and Disorder (July 9, 2012)

Berry, Wendell. "A Citizen’s Response to the National Security Strategy." Orion (March/April 2003)

Binney, William. "Growing State Surveillance." Democracy Now (April 20, 2012)

Binney, William and Glenn Greenwald. "'On a Slippery Slope to a Totalitarian State': NSA Whistleblower Rejects Gov’t Defense of Spying." Democracy Now (June 10, 2013)

Blum, William. Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions since World War II. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995.

Boykoff, Jules and Kristian Williams. "Police Power and the Suppression of Dissent." Writers Talking (February 24, 2009)

Brennan, Niall, Glenn Greenwald, Burt Neuborne, and Geoff Stone. "The Constitution and National Security: The First Amendment Under Attack." The Center on Law and Security (December 1, 2010)

Bromwich, David. "Diary: The Snowden Case." The London Review of Books 35.13 (July 4, 2013)

Carlin, Dan. "The Bitter Harvest of Fear." Common Sense #214 (December 15, 2011)

---. "Pyrrhic Schadenfreude." Common Sense #199 (May 2, 2011)

---. "Secret Leakage." Common Sense #248 (March 2, 2013)

---. "Security Uber Alles. Common Sense #219 (February 9, 2012)

---. "Vlad and Dianne." Common Sense #272 (March 22, 2014) ["Russia annexes the Crimea and the intelligence community's biggest supporter, Sen. Feinstein turns against the CIA. How can Dan choose between these two stories? He doesn't. He deals with both of them in this episode."]

The CenterLine (New York University School of Law: The Center on Law and Security is a research and policy institute dedicated to examining the legal dimensions of national security; both domestically and internationally. Through its public forums, databases, publications, specialized policy groups, and international roundtables and summits, the Center has become a unique and valued resource in the United States policy community. The Center has three points of focus: 1) Domestic Programs ­– featuring the Terrorist Trial Report Card, a database of defendants indicted in terrorism-associated cases in U.S. criminal courts since 9/11 and the resulting prosecutions; the Civilian/Military Project; the Accountability Project, an edited, online compendium of official documents related to the war on terror; and our publications on wiretapping, detention, and interrogation. 2) International Programs – including the Center’s flagship Global Security Forum convened annually at Villa La Pietra in Florence, Italy, where counterterrorism and foreign policy practitioners, officials, scholars, and analysts from around the world meet for a series of candid, off-the-record discussions. 3) Special Topics in the Middle East and Muslim Communities – concentrating on Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, and Yemen; the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq; radicalization and deradicalization; and al Qaeda.)

The Center on Law and Security (New York University School of Law: "Founded in 2003, the Center on Law and Security is an independent, non-partisan, global center of expertise designed to promote an informed understanding of the major legal and security issues that define the post-9/11 environment. Towards that end, the Center brings together policymakers, practitioners, scholars, journalists and other experts who might not otherwise meet to address major issues and gaps in policy discourse and to provide concrete policy recommendations.")

Conroy, Bill. "More Fast and Furious / Did Cele Call it?" The Expert Witness Radio Show (December 14, 2011)

Crespo, Glenn and Larry Hildes. "Inside the Army Spy Ring & Attempted Entrapment of Peace Activists, Iraq Vets, Anarchists." Democracy Now (February 25, 2014)

"Critical Art Ensemble: When Thought Becomes Crime." Dialogic (October 5, 2005)

Crowmwell, David and David Edwards. "Snowden, Surveillance And The Secret State." Media Lens (June 28, 2013)

Crow, Scott and Mike German. "FBI to Expand Domestic Surveillance Powers As Details Emerge of Its Spy Campaign Targeting Activists." Democracy Now (June 14, 2011)

Curry, Marshall, Andrew Stepanian, and Will Potter. "“If a Tree Falls”: New Documentary on Daniel McGowan, Earth Liberation Front and Green Scare." Democracy Now (June 21, 2011)

Dershowitz, Alan, Glenn Greenwald, Michael Hayden and Alexis Ohanian. "Glenn Greenwald Debates Former NSA Director Michael Hayden." The Intercept (May 2, 2014)

Doctorow, Cory. "The Coming Civil War Over General Purpose Computation." Craphound (August 5, 2012)

---. "Kafka, meet Orwell: peek behind the scenes of the modern surveillance state." Boing Boing (May 27, 2013)

Drake, Thomas. "Snowden saw what I saw: surveillance criminally subverting the constitution." The Guardian (June 12, 2013)

Drone Survival Guide [Website: "Our ancestors could spot natural predators from far by their silhouettes. Are we equally aware of the predators in the present-day? Drones are remote-controlled planes that can be used for anything from surveillance and deadly force, to rescue operations and scientific research. Most drones are used today by military powers for remote-controlled surveillance and attack, and their numbers are growing. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) predicted in 2012 that within 20 years there could be as many as 30.000 drones flying over U.S. Soil alone. As robotic birds will become commonplace in the near future, we should be prepared to identify them. This survival guide is an attempt to familiarise ourselves and future generations, with a changing technological environment. This document contains the silhouettes of the most common drone species used today and in the near future. Each indicating nationality and whether they are used for surveillance only or for deadly force. All drones are drawn in scale for size indication. From the smallest consumer drones measuring less than 1 meter, up to the Global Hawk measuring 39,9 meter in length."]

Dubal, Veena. "Presumed Guilty: American Muslims and Arabs (9-11 Encore Edition)." Making Contact (September 6, 2011)

Ellsberg, Daniel. "NDAA Indefinite Detention Provision is Part of 'Systematic Assault on Constitution'." Democracy Now (February 5, 2013)

Feffer, John. "Governments Kill." Institute for Policy Studies (August 23, 2011)

"Getting Away With Torture: The Bush Administration and Mistreatment of Detainees." Human Rights Watch (July 12, 2011)

Greene, Robyn. "Even Your Avatar Can't Escape NSA Surveillance." ACLU (December 12, 2013)

Greenwald, Glenn. "Chilling legal memo from Obama DOJ justifies assassination of US citizens." The Guardian (February 5, 2013)

---. "Edward Snowden "Satisfied" by Global Outrage over U.S. Surveillance Operations." Democracy Now (July 8, 2013)

---. "FBI's abuse of the surveillance state is the real scandal needing investigation: That the stars of America's national security establishment are being devoured by out-of-control surveillance is a form of sweet justice." The Guardian (November 13, 2012)

---. "Glenn Greenwald Speaks Out on Edward Snowden and the NSA Revelations." We Are Many (June 2013)

---. "GOP and Feinstein join to fulfill Obama's demand for renewed warrantless eavesdropping." The Guardian (December 28, 2012)

---. "How Covert Agents Infiltrate the Internet to Manipulate, Deceive, and Destroy Reputations." Intercept (February 24, 2014)

---. "A Massive Surveillance State": Glenn Greenwald Exposes Covert NSA Program Collecting Calls, Emails." Democracy Now (June 7, 2013)

---. "NSA collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily." The Guardian (June 6, 2013)

---. "On How NSA Leaker Edward Snowden Helped Expose a 'Massive Surveillance Apparatus'." Democracy Now (June 10, 2013)

---. "'Rogue' Actions of U.S. in Snowden Row Yield Latin American Offers of Asylum." Democracy Now (July 8, 2013)

---. "Torture crimes officially, permanently shielded." Salon (July 1, 2011)

---. "Where is Edward Snowden? Glenn Greenwald on Asylum Request, Espionage Charge; More Leaks to Come." Democracy Now (June 24, 2013)

Greenwald, Glenn, Ewen MacAskill and Laura Poitras. "Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations." The Guardian (June 9, 2013)

Greenwald, Glenn and Jeremy Scahill. "Death By Metadata: Jeremy Scahill & Glenn Greenwald Reveal NSA Role in Assassinations Overseas." Democracy Now (February 10, 2014)

---. "Defying Threats to Journalism, Jeremy Scahill & Glenn Greenwald Launch New Venture, The Intercept." Democracy Now (February 10, 2014)

---. "Report: Obama Administration Considers Assassinating Another American Overseas." Democracy Now (February 10, 2014)

Hedges, Chris. "The Death of Truth." TruthDig (May 5, 2013)

Horton, Scott. "Secret Federal FISA Court Advocate of National Security State." Law and Disorder Radio (July 15, 2013)

---. "A Setback For Obama’s War On Whistleblowers." Law and Disorder Radio (August 15, 2011)

---. "The Torture Doctors." Harpers (November 4, 2013) [An expert panel concludes that the Pentagon and the CIA ordered physicians to violate the Hippocratic Oath.]

Hudson, David. "Zero Dark Thirty and the CIA." Keyframe (May 8, 2013)

The Intercept ("The Intercept, a publication of First Look Media, was created by Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras, and Jeremy Scahill. It has a two-fold mission: one short-term, the other long-term. Our short-term mission is to provide a platform to report on the documents previously provided by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden. Although we are still building our infrastructure and larger vision, we are launching now because we believe we have a vital obligation to this ongoing and evolving story, to these documents, and to the public. Our NSA coverage will be comprehensive, innovative and multi-faceted. We have a team of experienced editors and journalists devoted to the story. We will use all forms of digital media for our reporting. In addition, we will publish primary source documents on which our reporting is based. We will also invite outside experts with area knowledge to contribute to our reporting, and provide a platform for commentary and reader engagement. Our long-term mission is to produce fearless, adversarial journalism across a wide range of issues. The editorial independence of our journalists will be guaranteed. They will be encouraged to pursue their passions, cultivate a unique voice, and publish stories without regard to whom they might anger or alienate. We believe the prime value of journalism is its power to impose transparency, and thus accountability, on the most powerful governmental and corporate bodies, and our journalists will be provided the full resources and support required to do this. While our initial focus will be the critical work surrounding the NSA story, we are excited by the opportunity to grow with our readers into the broader and more comprehensive news outlet that the The Intercept will become.")

Isikoff, Michael. "Justice Department memo reveals legal case for drone strikes on Americans." Open Channel (February 5, 2013)

Jaffer, Jameel. "Kill List Exposed: Leaked Obama Memo Shows Assassination of U.S. Citizens 'Has No Geographic Limit'." Democracy Now (February 5, 2013)

"Julian Assange in Conversation with John Pilger." Top Documentary Films (2010)

Kiriakou, John and Jesselyn Raddack. "Ex-CIA Agent, Whistleblower John Kiriakou Sentenced to Prison While Torturers He Exposed Walk Free." Democracy Now (January 30, 2013)

---. "Whistleblower John Kiriakou: For Embracing Torture, John Brennan a "Terrible Choice to Lead the CIA"." Democracy Now (January 30, 2013)

Kishore, Joseph. "Questions mount about Boston bombers’ links to US intelligence agencies." World Socialist Web Site (April 26, 2013)

Kovalik, Daniel. "The CIA, Cocaine and Death Squads: The U.S. War for Drugs of Terror in Colombia." Counterpunch (February 16, 2012)

Landau, Susan. "Surveillance or Security? The Risks Posed by New Wiretapping Technologies." Berkman Center for Internet and Society Podcast (March 8, 2011)

Leigh, David, James Ball, Ian Cobain and Jason Burke. "Guantánamo leaks lift lid on world's most controversial prison • Innocent people interrogated for years on slimmest pretexts • Children, elderly and mentally ill among those wrongfully held • 172 prisoners remain, some with no prospect of trial or release • Interactive guide to all 779 detainees." The Guardian (April 25, 2011)

Lessig, Lawrence and Jonathan Zittrain. "The Internet Kill Switch." Radio Berkman (March 16, 2011)

Lindorff, Dave. "FBI Ignored Deadly Threat to Occupiers." Counterpunch (December 28, 2012)

Lofgren, Ian. "The Deep State Hiding in Plain Sight." Moyers & Co. (February 21, 2014) ["Everyone knows about the military-industrial complex, which, in his farewell address, President Eisenhower warned had the potential to “endanger our liberties or democratic process” but have you heard of the 'Deep State'?”]

Ludlow, Peter. "Jailed Journalist Barrett Brown Faces 105 Years For Reporting on Hacked Private Intelligence Firms." Democracy Now (July 11, 2013)

Manningham-Buller, Eliza. "Securing Freedom." Reith Lectures (2011)

Mayer, Carl. "Challenging The National Defense Authorization Act of 2012." Law and Disorder Radio (January 7, 2013)

Mayer, Jane. "The Secret Sharer: Is Thomas Drake an enemy of the state?" The New Yorker (May 23, 2011)

McGirk, Tim. "In Exiting Iraq, U.S. Military Discards Trove of Found Documents on 2005 Haditha Massacre of Iraqis." Democracy Now (December 21, 2011)

McGovern, Ray. "Excusing Torture, Again." Common Dreams (January 9, 2013)

Miller, Greg, Adam Goldman and Ellen Nakashima. "CIA misled on interrogation program, Senate report says." Washington Post (March 31, 2014)

Moynihan, Colin and Scott Shane. "For Anarchist, Details of Life as F.B.I. Target." The New York Times (May 29, 2011)

Nader, Ralph. "Where are the Lawyers?: Obama at Large." Counterpunch (May 31, 2012)

National Security Archive ["An independent non-governmental research institute and library located at The George Washington University, the Archive collects and publishes declassified documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act. The Archive also serves as a repository of government records on a wide range of topics pertaining to the national security, foreign, intelligence, and economic policies of the United States. The Archive won the 1999 George Polk Award, one of U.S. journalism's most prestigious prizes, for--in the words of the citation--"piercing the self-serving veils of government secrecy, guiding journalists in the search for the truth and informing us all." The Archive obtains its materials through a variety of methods, including the Freedom of Information act, Mandatory Declassification Review, presidential paper collections, congressional records, and court testimony. Archive staff members systematically track U.S. government agencies and federal records repositories for documents that either have never been released before, or that help to shed light on the decision-making process of the U.S. government and provide the historical context underlying those decisions. The Archive regularly publishes portions of its collections on microfiche, the World Wide Web, CD-ROM, and in books. The Washington Journalism Review called these publications, collectively totaling more than 500,000 pages, "a state-of-the-art index to history." The Archive's World Wide Web site, www.nsarchive.org, has won numerous awards, including USA Today's "Hot Site" designation. As a part of its mission to broaden access to the historical record, the Archive is also a leading advocate and user of the Freedom of Information Act. Precedent-setting Archive lawsuits have brought into the public domain new materials on the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Iran-Contra Affair, and other issues that have changed the way scholars interpret those events. The Archive spearheaded the groundbreaking legal effort to preserve millions of pages of White House e-mail records that were created during the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton administrations. The Archive's mission of guaranteeing the public's right to know extends to other countries outside the United States. The organization is currently involved in efforts to sponsor freedom of information legislation in the nations of Central Europe, Central and South America and elsewhere, and is committed to finding ways to provide technical and other services that will allow archives and libraries overseas to introduce appropriate records management systems into their respective institutions. The Archive's $2.5 million yearly budget comes from publication revenues, contributions from individuals and grants from foundations such as the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and the Open Society Institute. As a matter of policy, the Archive seeks no U.S. government funding."]

Nevins, Joseph. "Drones and the Dream of Remote Control in the Borderlands." Counterpunch (May 3, 2012)

"List of Edward Snowden's NSA Revelations." Peace Action Wisconsin (2014)

Open Society Justice Initiative. Globalizing Torture: CIA Secret Detention and Extraordinary Rendition. Open Society Foundations (February 2013)

"Osama Bin Laden File." The National Security Archive (National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 343: May 2, 2011)

"Out of Exile: Special Reports on Ousted Honduran President Zelaya’s Return 2 Years After U.S.-Backed Coup." Democracy Now (May 31-June 1, 2011)

Poitras, Laura. "Detained in the U.S.: Filmmaker Laura Poitras Held, Questioned Some 40 Times at U.S. Airports." Democracy Now (April 20, 2012)
Potter, Will. "What is the "Green Scare." Green is the New Red (2011)

Priest, Dana and William M. Arkin. "Top Secret America." The Washington Post (Documentary archive: July 19 - December 20, 2010)

Radack, Jesselyn. "Attorney for Edward Snowden Interrogated at U.K. Airport, Placed on 'Inhibited Persons List'" Democracy Now (February 18, 2014)

Radack, Jesselyn and Michael Ratner. "Spying on Lawyers: Snowden Documents Show NSA Ally Targeted U.S. Law Firm." Democracy Now (February 18, 2014)

Ratner, Michael. "Exposed: U.S. May Have Designated Julian Assange and WikiLeaks an 'Enemy of the State.'" Democracy Now (September 27, 2012)

---. "Ten Years after 9/11: War, Operation American Condor (Guantanamo) , Civil Liberties and Hope." Law and Disorder Radio (July 25, 2011)

Richardson, Michelle. "'Patriot Act' Extended: Assault on Liberties Continues." The Burt Cohen Show (June 5, 2011)

---. "Senate Votes To Extends Warrantless Wiretaps For Five More Years: No Oversight, No Transparency." Law and Disorder (February 11, 2013)

"RNC Protests 1." Mic Check Radio (August 28, 2012)

Rosen, Jay. "The Afghanistan War Logs Released by Wikileaks, the World's First Stateless News Organization." Press Think (July 26, 2010)

Rosenfeld, Seth. "Spies in the Hill." Excerpt from Subversives: The FBI's War on Student Radicals, and Reagan's Rise to Power. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012: 11-27.

Rusbridger, Alan. "Spilling the NSA’s Secrets: Guardian Editor Alan Rusbridger on the Inside Story of Snowden Leaks." Democracy Now (September 23, 2013)

Ryan, Yasmine. "Anti-terrorism and uprisings: North African leaders have worked with the West against Islamists and migrants - becoming more repressive as a result." Al Jazeera (February 25, 2011)

Scahill, Jeremy. "The World Is a Battlefield: Jeremy Scahill on "Dirty Wars" and Obama’s Expanding Drone Attacks." Democracy Now (April 24, 2013)

Schecter, Danny. "Nailing Osama: The Media's Delight." Al Jazeera (May 6, 2011)

Shorrock, Tim. "Digital Blackwater: How the NSA Gives Private Contractors Control of the Surveillance State." Democracy Now (June 11, 2013)

Snowden, Edward. ""You’re Being Watched": Edward Snowden Emerges as Source Behind Explosive Revelations of NSA Spying." Democracy Now (June 10, 2013)

The Spy Factory NOVA (February 4, 2009)

"Supreme Court Denies Review of NSA Warrantless Surveillance Case." Center for Constitutional Rights (March 4, 2014) ["Recent Snowden Revelations Showed Government Likely Spying on Attorney Communications"]

Taylor, Laurie. "The other side of the street: Laurie Taylor interviews Stan Cohen." New Humanist New Humanist 119.4 (July 2004)

Thompson, Paul. "Terror Timeline." Boiling Frogs (3 Pt interview: September 1, September 6, and September 16, 2011)

Timm, Trevor. "Congress Disgracefully Approves the FISA Warrantless Spying Bill for Five More Years, Rejects All Privacy Amendments." Electronic Frontier Foundation (December 28, 2012)

Verheyden-Hilliard, Mara. "FBI Considers The Occupy Movement A Terrorist Threat: The State of Civil Rights and Public Policy." Law and Disorder Radio (January 7, 2013)

Walker, Shaun. "Russia to monitor 'all communications' at Winter Olympics in Sochi." The Guardian (October 6, 2013)

Wright, Ann and Ed Kinane. "Drones on Trial: 38 Protesters Face Charges for Disrupting Syracuse Base Used in Overseas Attacks." Democracy Now (November 4, 2011)

James Bamford: Author/Journalist (Ongoing Archive)

Wikipedia: James Bamford

@WashAuthor


Bamford, James. "After Words with James Bamford." C-SPAN (October 15, 2008)

---. "Big Brother Doesn’t Have to Be a Bully: How Washington can use surveillance to save lives — not target them." Foreign Policy (January 29, 2015)

---. "The Most Man in the World." Wired (August 2014)

---. "The New Thought Police." NOVA (January 1, 2009)

---. "The NSA and Me." The Intercept (October 2, 2014)

---. "The NSA Is Building the Country’s Biggest Spy Center (Watch What You Say)." Wired (March 15, 2012)

---. "The NSA’s warrantless wiretapping program, the ties between NSA and the nation’s telecommunications companies including the Israeli companies involved in intercepting highly sensitive communications for the U.S. government, the agency’s failings pre-9/11 and the relevant information blackout by the 9/11 Commission, the US mainstream media, President Obama’s ‘no change’ so far, and more." Boiling Frogs (July 21, 2009)

---. "The Shadow Factory -- The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America." Democracy Now (October 14, 2008)

---. "They Know Much More Than You Think." The New York Review of Books (August 15, 2013)

Binney, William. "National Security Agency Whistleblower William Binney on Growing State Surveillance." Democracy Now (April 20, 2012)

Nazaryan, James. "The N.S.A.’s Chief Chronicler." The New Yorker (June 10, 2013)

Douglas Allen Sutton -- Only the Wind Will Know (Spring 2015: ENG 102 Essay)

Douglas Allen Sutton
English 102
Professor: Michael Benton

Only The Wind Will Know

America as a nation has expanded from the 1600’s when the first European Colonists from England arrived on the shores of the east coast and continued their expansion toward the west coast. The American Revolution that broke with England helped shape our country to its democratic form by forcing our founding fathers to examine their way of thinking, and to create laws that might be fairer for the new America. Our founding fathers recognized the unfair rule of England and wished to be free from those intrusions. They claimed to create laws that represented the people, not the government, and afforded protections to all. Were those laws representative of both the settlers and Native Americans, or did those laws help clear a path for the systematic genocide of a population of people that inhabited the Americas long before the first settlers? Did the American colonists attempt to militarily integrate a weaker Native American society, or did they view them as obstacles to exploit or eliminate?

I recall from my history classes, stories that told about the epic struggles of the Native American tribes and the hardships they endured during the Western Expansion of the American settlers. We must examine the cost in terms of culture, life, and legacy of the Native American tribes because of the massive population flood of American settlers into native lands. Further explanation is required to measure the benefits and sacrifices for both settlers and Native Americans. I will argue that many laws were passed by the American government that was based more on prejudice and greed than on mutual protection of all parties. I will assess how religious leaders attempted to impose an assimilation doctrine upon the Native Americans and examine how industrial America and the cattle barons exploited the settlers as well as the Native Americans, and lastly how the expansion of the 1800’s has had a lasting effect on the Native American population of present day America.

Few films capture the plight of the Native American tribes like the movie Dances with Wolves (1990). The director Kevin Costner was able to capture many minute details of family structure and the bond developed by a people that understood the fine balance between nature and life. Costner takes us on a journey through the prairies and highlands of the Great Sioux Nation during the mid to late 1800’s as an observer, letting us be a part of a culture that may greatly resemble our own. Costner lets us travel and live as one with the people through his interpretation, allowing us some visual insight and to experience the joys and hardships that will cause us to develop an emotional investment in the characters and the stories they tell. The film follows one particular tribe called the Sioux. This remarkable tribe lived on the plains and through their actions can effectively demonstrate the struggles this tribe faced together and how they interacted with each other to survive. Costner portrayed the Sioux as a people with courage, love, and a strong since of pride. According to the movie Dances with Wolves, the Sioux developed life-long family bonds. This particular tribe believed in hard work and viewed giving away or trading their wealth as noble.

The American expansion into the Native American lands became progressively intrusive once the American settlers began to parcel out portions of land for farming. Vast numbers of settlers trying to strike it rich flocked west of the Mississippi River, passing through or claiming land within occupied Native American lands. Initial contact between settlers and Native Americans was usually peaceful, and many cultural exchanges were made for food, medicine, tools, weapons, and clothing, but shortly after those exchanges, relationships between both parties would often result in conflict over land (Allen 403). The settlers became in direct competition with the Native Americans for the resources to survive. Many of the tribes viewed this intrusion as an act of war, attacking the settlers. Costner depicted one of these intrusions in his movie, showing the Pawnee attacking a family of settlers, killing everyone but a young white female who was able to escape by fleeing the area. The scene showed the hostile intent and distrust between the settlers and the Pawnee and demonstrated a war like battle that left a young girl alone and scared on the prairie, only to be rescued and raised by a Sioux holy man. This little girl would grow up to give voice to this tribe, allowing Costner to give insight to a tribe that the American Government considered savages. Once the news of those attacks was brought to the attention of the American politicians, laws were enacted to allow for conflict resolution between settlers and Native Americans. These laws could be viewed as one sided, such as the Indian Removal Act of the 1830’s, which allowed for the forcible removal or relocation of the Native Americans to lands designated by the Federal Government and enforced by the United States Military (“Century”). Political figures within the federal government such as President Grover Cleveland viewed the government as guardians for wards of the states, and the Indians were considered wards of the states (Allen 411).

President Cleveland helped create the Dawes Severalty Act, and this Act reflected his ever-changing personal views of the Native Americans. President Cleveland’s views of the Native Americans would often swing drastically from the Indians being “lazy, vicious, and stupid” to “industrious, peaceful, and intelligent” (Allen 411). The Dawes Severalty Act allowed President Cleveland to assign 160 acres of land to individual Indians once they had legally severed ties to their tribe. These Individual Native Americans had to agree to allow the government to sell unassigned tribal lands, and in return, some of those funds would be set aside for Native American education. Those Native Americans could also petition the United States government for U.S. citizenship (Faragher: 347). Others saw the Native Americans as needing guidance but agreed that barbarism and civilization could not live together (Allen 411). This political stance was represented in Costner’s film by acts of aggression toward Lieutenant John Dunbar, a white civil war military hero that fellow soldiers considered a traitor because he had conspired with the Natives. The American military commanders believed Dunbar had turned Indian and offered to spare his life if he would assist them in hunting down the tribe he had befriended. The American Military displayed hatred toward this tribe by demonstrating they were willing to kill one of their own commanders because they believed he had become an Indian by association. I consider the political mind-set of that time to be one sided because it only addresses what the government considered to be the Indian problem. These laws appeared to remove the Native American’s legitimate right to the lands they occupied and assisted the settlers in gaining vast parcels of land with limited conflict. Some of the Native Americans were confused by the American government, according to a Sioux warrior named John (Fire) Lame Deer. He said, “The U.S. Government is a strange monster with many heads. One head doesn’t know what the others are up to” (gtd. in Erdoes 9). With so many political and military leaders making decisions and creating laws, there may have been ample opportunity for corruption and greed to enter the political process. Men who make the laws could be persuaded through ulterior motives, profit, or friendship to create laws that would violate the very principles our founding fathers developed for a young America. I believe if laws are created that allow for the extermination of a people and the acquisition of their lands, it is not only reprehensible, but shows a total lack of empathy for human life.

Even though the American political parties may have viewed the Native Americans as savages, those that claim God as the creator of all may have viewed the Native Americans worthy of redemption. I argue the actions of American religion could have been as detrimental to the Native Americans as the laws that regulated behavior, land ownership, and even their existence. According to Corinthians 15: 1-4 of the Bible, Christians believe that Jesus Christ died on the cross to pay for the sins of man, and who ever believes in this doctrine will have everlasting life in heaven. The believer’s soul will spend eternity in heaven with God the father and creator of man. This is in contrast to the beliefs of the Native Americans. The Sioux believed in a Great Spirit called tunka and according to Lame Deer, tunka is considered their oldest God. The Native Americans considered tunka to be like a rock, ageless, eternal. The Sioux also considered tunka as the Great Spirit, a spirit of stone that sometimes would reveal hidden messages or invisible writings to those that listened with their heart (qtd. in Erdoes 193). American settlers like Captain John Smith and his wife tried to develop schools to educate the Native Americans in English language, customs, and Christianity (Allen 17).

The rigid rules that accompanied some of the American religions were in direct contrast to the beliefs of the Native Americans. The Sioux, for instance, believe everything was connected to nature and the Great Spirit would guide and protect them. Christians believe in an entity that created all things, and this spirit would guide and protect those that believe. The Native Americans prayed too many spirits and the American settlers believed in only one God. This sharp contrast caused turmoil between the Natives and settlers. There were many variations throughout the different American religious sects, for instance Catholicism, Protestant, and Judaism but the basic premise remained the same, the belief in God, the creator and savior of the devout believer. With so many different religious belief structures, I subscribe to the notion that with so many religious variations this may have confused the Native Americans and may have been extremely detrimental to them because it attempted to assimilate the Native Americans into a culture outside their own without consideration for their current beliefs. This new religion may have removed their own beliefs and caused the Native Americans to accept American religion only to help them survive in an ever-growing intrusion of American settlers into their homelands. I could never be entirely sure of the overall effect that religion had upon the Native Americans, but I believe any religion that doesn’t respect a society for their current beliefs may not be living by the standards they so aggressively teach and defend. By reviewing the religions of both cultures, I can accept that many of the Native American beliefs are similar to those of the American settlers and may have very easily been incorporated into the mainstream beliefs of the settlers, but that may have required the settlers to practice a little more tolerance and compassion for others. I do believe there was an attempt by the early American settlers to use religion to control and assimilate the Native Americans into the White American culture. These attempts may not have been as nefarious as it appeared, because in my experience with religion, I often observed many displays of kindness and a genuine concern for a person’s well-being. I have found nothing in documentation that would lead me to believe that at least some of the religious community would have behaved in the same manner toward the Native Americans.

My final argument will demonstrate the efforts of industrial America to systematically exterminate the Native Americans and pillage the lands west of the Mississippi river of their natural resources. Through his movie, Costner gave us a tiny glimpse through his movie of the massive herds of buffalo, and how the Sioux tribe’s survival depended on hunting those buffalo. The Sioux in Costner’s movie Dances with Wolves appeared to be saddened when the tribe found scores of buffalo that had been killed by white hunters and were left lying on the prairie for nothing more than their fur. To a people that survived on the meat of the buffalo, this would have been a devastating sight and could have been viewed as an act of war. Military commanders encouraged their soldiers to practice their shooting skills by shooting buffalo with the new .50 caliber Sharps rifle (Faragher 332). The killing of the buffalo was not the only attacks the Native Americans had to endure the mining industry and prospectors moved into the Dakota Territory and began to corrupt officials of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, allowing the mining companies to divert funds for personal use and reduce food supplies to the Native Americans (Faragher 332). With so many different tribes assigned and living on the Dakota reservation, survival had become harder, and with the reduction of food supplies, skirmishes between tribes were ever increasing. American settlers continued to flock westward to find their fortunes, trying to find copper in Arizona or gold in California. There would always be some product or resource that would capture the imagination of the settlers and continue to push the Native Americans into an ever shrinking land that their society may not recover from. With the industrial age of America in its infancy, the Native Americans would not be the only people to fall victim to the rapid growth of the mining, cattle, and railroad industry. The poor settlers along with the Mexicans, Chinese, and an assortment of immigrants looking for fortune would find it hard to be successful or survive because of the lack of support by these wealthy business owners. Some farms would fail because of lack of water in the desert, while others fell to disease or harsh winters. The larger mining companies bought up the smaller individual claims and purchased state of the art mining equipment, leaving the individual miners who were unwilling to sell to the larger companies unable to compete financially (Faragher 335). The rapid growth of these industries was very progressive and an essential part of Americas growth, but came at a high cost for some.

In summary my arguments have demonstrated the United States government made unfair laws that assisted in the destruction of the Native American society and forced those remaining to live a very harsh life on lands that were not their own. The Native Americans were deceived into forfeiting their homelands and forced down a path that even in today’s Native American community’s leave many in the grip of poverty. I have successfully argued that religious leaders attempted to assimilate the Native Americans through education, religion, and separation from their tribes. Lastly, America’s industrial society, made up of mainly white, wealthy businessmen, politicians, and the financially elite, were able to lure vast numbers of settlers to the West with a promise of fortune and freedom, pushing the Native Americans out of their homelands and closer to their demise. I would like to think we as a people learned valuable lessons during America’s growth westward, but it appears to me those same tactics imposed on the Native Americans during the 1800s are still being used today by our present day politicians, corporations, and elitists, to control or push aside any whom they consider an obstacle. Laws are still smothering and controlling groups of people. Corporations like the oil tycoons control financial markets and lobby politicians to create laws that favor corporate interests over the smaller business owners. I wonder are we the current day Native Americans? Will our survival be challenged or pushed aside so the wealthy can become more powerful? Will corporations continue to claim their success is the success of the nation? I believe only the wind will know.


Works Cited:

Allen, Larry Schweikart and Michael. A Patriot's History of the United States. New York: Penguin Group, 2007.

Deer, John (Fire) Lame, and Richard Erdoes. Lame Deer, Seeker of Visions. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972.

John Mack Faragher, Mari Jo Buhle, et al. Out of Many: A History of the American People. Ed. Todd R.Armstrong. Upper saddle River: Simon & Schuster, 1999.

The Library of Congress. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation. 28 May 1830. 01 May 2003. .

Wednesday, March 18, 2015

Resources for March 18, 2015

"Mike Nichols." Moving Image Source (March 1, 1990) ["Mike Nichols took Broadway by storm in the early 1960s with his comedy partner Elaine May. He began his directing career with the stage production of Barefoot in the Park and became a film director with Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, followed by his landmark film The Graduate. In this interview, just before he was honored with a gala Salute by the Museum of the Moving Image, Nichols talks about how the assured, controlled style of his early films evolved into a looser, more naturalistic approach, and about how, for him, directing actors is largely a matter of trust and letting go."]

"Patrizia von Brandenstein." Moving Image Sources (October 15, 1994) ["When we comment on the look of a movie, or on the beautiful cinematography, we are often commenting on what the production designer, working with the director and cinematographer, has put there to be photographed. Legendary designer Patrizia von Brandenstein has shown a remarkable range, from the period settings of Ragtime and Billy Bathgate to the swank Manhattan interiors of Six Degrees of Separation to the weather-beaten and far less sumptuous interiors of Leap of Faith and Silkwood. In this presentation, von Brandenstein leads the audience through sequences from her work, and lucidly defines the art of production design."]

"David Cronenberg." Moving Image Source (January 11, 1992) ["The Canadian director David Cronenberg has redefined the notion of what a horror film can be. While horror and science-fiction films traditionally have been about threats from the outside—monsters or alien forces—Cronenberg's films (including The Brood and The Fly) have been about threats that come from inside our own bodies, and our psyches. It was fitting, then, that Cronenberg should be the director to adapt William S. Burroughs's novel Naked Lunch, with its grotesque and comical mix of the organic, the chemical, and the hallucinatory."]

Naked Lunch (Canada/UK/Japan: David Cronenberg, 1991) Dialogic Cinephilia (Ongoing Archive)

Klimkiw, Greg, Guy Maddin and Greg Toles. "Careful." The Projection Booth #103 (February 26, 2013)

Sammon, Paul M. "Blue Velvet." The Projection Booth #104 (March 5, 2013)

Goldberg, Michelle. "The Laura Kipnis Melodrama." The Nation (March 16, 2015)

O'Connell, Joe. "Crime and Consequences." The Austin Chronicle (February 27, 2015) ["American Crime creator John Ridley talks about shooting in Austin, faith, race, and Felicity Huffman'"]

"The 50 Best Films of the Decade so Far." The Playlist (February 25, 2015)



Sunday, March 15, 2015

Naked Lunch (Canada/UK/Japan: David Cronenberg, 1991)




Naked Lunch (Canada/UK/Japan: David Cronenberg, 1991: 115 mins)

"David Cronenberg." Moving Image Source (January 11, 1992) ["The Canadian director David Cronenberg has redefined the notion of what a horror film can be. While horror and science-fiction films traditionally have been about threats from the outside—monsters or alien forces—Cronenberg's films (including The Brood and The Fly) have been about threats that come from inside our own bodies, and our psyches. It was fitting, then, that Cronenberg should be the director to adapt William S. Burroughs's novel Naked Lunch, with its grotesque and comical mix of the organic, the chemical, and the hallucinatory."]

Land, Joshua. "Migrating Forms: David Cronenberg and the challenge of the impossible adaptation." Moving Image Source (February 3, 2012)

Lattimer, James. "Evolving Mantras and Restricted Vocabularies." The Notebook (February 23, 2015)












Thursday, March 12, 2015

Resources for March 11, 2015

Lee, Kevin B. "New Year’s Irresolutions and a Cinematic Cliff: Richard Linklater’s Slacker." Keyframe (January 4, 2013)

Dear White People (USA: Justin Simien, 2014: 108 mins) Dialogic Cinephilia (Ongoing Archive)

O'Malley, Sheila. "Girlhood." Roger Ebert (January 30, 2015)





Soderbergh, Steven. "On King of the Hill." The Current (February 26, 2014)

Heller-Nicholas, Alexandra. "Dreams and Visions: Ingmar Bergman’s Kvinnodröm (Dreams) (1955)." Bright Lights Film Journal (February 3, 2015)

Murray, Terri and Anja Steinbauer. "Feminist Film Theory." Philosophy Now #7 (September 13, 2011)

Cousins, Mark. "50 weeks to learn film." Sight and Sound (February 19, 2015)